Most of these resources were found using MEDLINE on the Web:

Articles and Other Published Comments on Doulas

  1. Barron SP; Lane HW; Hannan TE; Struempler B; Williams JC. 1988. Factors influencing duration of breast feeding among low-income women. J Am Diet Assoc 1988 Dec;88(12):1557-61

    Abstract:Postpartum doula support helps women breastfeed longer, no matter what the doula's attitude about breastfeeding is. This study, which looked at 40 low-income women, showed that women with postpartum doula support breastfed almost twice as long as women who had no doula.

  2. Berry, LM 1988. Realistic expectations of the labor coach. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic and Neonatal Nursing. Sept/Oct:354-55.

    Abstract: Fathers are almost always too stressed and emotionally involved in the birth experience to be good labor coaches. This study looked at the behavior of 40 new fathers during their spouses' labors. They only coached their spouses with their breathing exercises at the peak of labor. Fathers spent more time trying to hide their feelings and worrying about their usefulness.

  3. Bertsch, TD, Nagashima-Whalen, L, Dykeman, S, Kennel, JH, McGrath, S. 1990. Labor support by first-time fathers:direct observations with comparison to experienced doulas. Journal of Psychosomatics in Obstetrics and Gynaecology 11:251-260.

    (No abstract available)

  4. Campero L; Garcia C; Diaz C; Ortiz O; Reynoso S; Langer A. 1998. "Alone, I wouldn't have known what to do": a qualitative study on social support during labor and delivery in Mexico. Soc Sci Med 1998 Aug;47(3):395-403.

    Abstract:In this Mexico City study, the women who had doulas felt they were treated better by hospital staff; they understood the information they were given better; they had a stronger sense of control and they felt better about themselves and their labor.

  5. Chalmers B; Wolman W, 1993. Social support in labor--a selective review. J Psychosom Obstet Gynaecol 1993 Mar;14(1):1-15

    Abstract: Of all the kinds of people to provide support to women during labor, the support given by doulas is the most helpful. Doula support, either by a trained or an untrained doula, was shown in this review of several studies to be better than support by fathe rs, professional medical staff, family, or friends.

  6. Hodnett, ED and Osborn RW. 1989. Effects of continuous intrapartum professional support on childbirth outcomes. Research in Nursing & Health 12(5):289-297.

    Abstract: Continuous, one-to-one professional support during labor helps women have fewer episiotomies, less medication for pain relief, and a higher sense of control over their situation during labor.

  7. Hodnett ED; Osborn RW, 1989. A randomized trial of the effects of monitrice support during labor: mothers' views two to four weeks postpartum. Birth 1989 Dec;16(4):177-83; discussion 183-4

    Abstract: Women attended in labor by a monitrice use less medication, use stirrups in delivery, and remember receiving more emotional and physical support during labor than those who are attended only by hospital nurses. These women are also more likely to have intact perineums.

  8. Hodnett E, 1992. Doulas and the quality of maternity services [letter; comment]. Birth 1992 Sep;19(3):172 Comment on: Birth 1992 Mar;19(1):40-1

    (no abstract available)

  9. Hofmeyr, GJ, Nikodem, VC, Wolman, WL, Chalmers BE, Kramer T. 1991 Companionship to modify the clinical birth environment: effects on progress and perceptions of labour, and breastfeeding. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 98:756-764.

    Abstract:Women who were supported emotionally during labor by volunteers with no nursing experience experienced lower diastolic blood pressure, less use of analgesia, and lower anxiety during labor. They breastfed longer and at more flexible intervals.

  10. Kennell, J, Klaus, M, McGrath, S, Robertson, S, Hinkley, C. 1991. Continuous emotional support during labor in a US hospital. A randomized controlled trial. Journal of American Medical Association 265(17):2197-2201. Comment in: JAMA 1991 May 1;265(17):2 236-7 Comment in: JAMA 1991 Sep18;266(11):1509-10

    Abstract: The landmark study in Houston, TX which is quoted everywhere, citing incredible reductions of cesearean rate (50%), forceps delivery (40%), requests for epidural (60%) or other pain medications (40%), length of labor (25%) and need for Pitocin (50%).

  11. Klaus MH; Kennell JH. 1997. The doula: an essential ingredient of childbirth rediscovered. Acta Paediatr 1997 Oct;86(10):1034-6

    Abstract: This is a review and meta-analysis of eleven studies on doulas. Results show that doulas help first-time moms have shorter labors, use less medication, have fewer operative interventions and fewer c-sections. One study also showed that doula-supported w omen breastfed longer, had higher self-esteem, less depression, were happier with their babies and felt better able to care for them. When doulas were present, fathers offered more personal support to the laboring women.

  12. Klaus, MH, Kennell, JL, Robertson, SS, SOsa, R. 1986. Effects of social support during parturition on maternal and infant morbidity. British Medical Journal 293(6547): 585-7.

  13. Langer A; Campero L; Garcia C; Reynoso S. 1998. Effects of psychosocial support during labour and childbirth on breastfeeding, medical interventions, and mothers' wellbeing in a Mexican public hospital: a randomised clinical trial. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Oct;105(10):1056-63.

    Abstract: In Mexico City, a 1998 clinical trial provided some first-time mothers with a doula partway through their labors (at 6 cm dilated). These moms had shorter labors, breastfed longer and said they felt more in control of their delivery experience.

  14. Manning-Orenstein G. 1998. A birth intervention: the therapeutic effects of Doula support versus Lamaze preparation on first-time mothers' working models of caregiving. Altern Ther Health Med 1998 Jul;4(4):73-81

    Abstract: First-time moms who have doulas are better parents, even compared to other women who have had childbirth preparation classes like Lamaze. They show better caregiving strategies, more security and less emotionally distressed than women who did not have a doula during birth.

  15. May, K. 1988-89. Is it time to fire the coach? Childbirth Educator Winter 30-35.

    (no abstract available)

  16. McNiven, P, Hodnett, E, O'Brien-Pallas, LL. 1992. Supporting women in labor: a work sampling study of the activities of intrapartum nurses. Birth 1992 Mar;19(1):3-8; discussion 8-9

    Abstract: This Toronto study shows how little time nurses spend with laboring women on supportive care (emotional support, physical comfort measures, instruction/information, and advocacy). The proportion of time that nurses spent in supportive versus all other activities was 9.9%.

  17. Nolan M. 1995. Supporting women in labour: the doula's role. Mod Midwife 1995 Mar;5(3):12-5 Comment in: Mod Midwife 1995 Mar;5(3):4

    Abstract: This is a brief article explaining the role of the doula and its benefits. It addressed the idea that doula support "may reduce catecholamine levels, thus shortening the duration of labour." It also addressed the help doulas provide to fathers during la bor, and the potential cost savings to hospitals.

  18. Raphael D, 1988. New patterns in Doula client relations. Midwife Health Visit Community Nurse 1988 Sep;24(9):376-9.

    (no abstract available)

  19. Raphael D. 1981. The midwife as doula: a guide to mothering the mother. J Nurse Midwifery 1981 Nov-Dec;26(6):13-5

    (no abstract available)

  20. Ridiman KM. 1997. Doula for the bereaved. Supporting a mother whose pregnancy has ended. Midwifery Today Childbirth Educ 1997 Spring;(41):26-8

    (no abstract available)

  21. Rosen MG, 1991. Doula at the bedside of the patient in labor [editorial; comment] JAMA 1991 May 1;265(17):2236 Comment on: JAMA 1991 May1;265(17):2197-201

    (no abstract available)

  22. Shalev J. 1992. Having a doula during labor and delivery [letter] Midwifery Today Childbirth Educ 1992-93 Winter;(24):8-9

    (no abstract available)

    Shearer, B. 1989. Birth Assistant: new ally for the parents-to-be. Childbirth Educator Spring:26-31.

    (no abstract available)

    Sosa, R, Kennel, J, Robertson, S, Urrutia, J. 1980. The effect of a supportive companion on perinatal problems, length of labor, and mother-infant interaction. The New England Journal of Medicine. 303(11):597-600.

    Abstract: This Guatemalan study of 33 women with doulas and 103 without showed that doula-supported women had much shorter labors (8.8 vs. 19.3 hours), were more awake after delivery, and related to their babies in a more physically close way (stroking, smiling and talking to them).

    Wang D; Mao X; Qian S. 1997. [Clinical observation on Doula delivery] Chung Hua Fu Chan Ko Tsa Chih 1997 Nov;32(11):659-61. (In Chinese.)

    Abstract: The presence of a doula significantly reduces the rate of cesarean section. One 1997 study in China of 46 first-time mothers showed a 6.5% c-section rate in women with doulas, and a rate of 20.8% in women without doulas. The doula-attended women also ha d much shorter labors and much less postpartum bleeding.

  23. Zhang J; Bernasko JW; Leybovich E; Fahs M; Hatch MC. 1996. Continuous labor support from labor attendant for primiparous women: a meta-analysis. Obstet Gynecol 1996 Oct;88(4 Pt 2):739-44

    Abstract: This is a review and meta-analysis of four randomized controlled trials on doulas from 1965 through 1995. Results show that low-income, young, first-time moms attended by doulas have shorter labors (average of 2.8 hours shorter), and have half the number of pitocin-induced labors, deliveries with forceps, and c-sections. Women with labor support were more satisfied with their deliveries and did better postpartum.

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